Tips for Flood Coverage
Resist the pack mentality. Don't feign compassion. Be sensitive to the distress of people caught up in the tragedy. Exercise the principle of doing no further harm.
Here are tips for journalists in the field and managers in the newsroom from Dart Centre Australasia:
- Those affected by the floods have a right to decline being interviewed, photographed or filmed. News professionals in the field and in the newsroom need to respect that right. Exercise the principle of doing no further harm.
- Above all, be accurate and do not feign compassion – it can’t be faked. Offer sincere condolences early on in considerate terms. Use a supportive phrase like “I’m sorry this happened to you,” rather than the more abrupt “How do you feel?” or the discordant “I know how you feel,” which will immediately lose your credibility.
- Witnesses and survivors are likely to be in shock, at least in the immediate period after a disaster, and may not be in a fit state to be interviewed, filmed or photographed – indeed, to give anything like informed consent to an interview. So go easy on them.
- Avoid “devil’s advocate” questions that might imply blame or suggest that individuals could have done more to get out of the way of the flood waters.
- Even though a large number of news media will be chasing stories and fresh news angles at this time, resist the “pack” mentality, especially when media throngs are covering a subsequent development, event, or arrival. Pool resources where possible to limit demand on individuals and communities.
- Often people caught up in a traumatic event will experience deep conflict and confusion. For news media to focus on unresolved mental or emotional conflict can be destructive to victims, survivors, witnesses, their families and friends, as well as to unseen others who might have experienced similar or worse situations.
- Invite these people to be interviewed or photographed and provide a supportive atmosphere for that interchange, rather than coerce, cajole, trick or offer remuneration them to get co-operation. Don’t thrust the additional burden of negotiating an “exclusive” onto grieving families.
- Respect their choice to have someone with them or to appoint a family or external spokesperson or even a media advisor – and don’t pay out on them for making such choices. Most likely they’re being bombarded with requests from media and have little choice but to seek help to deal with, or limit, those demands.
- Try to make your approach as respectful and gentle as possible, despite your pressing deadline or a newsroom impatient for your copy or images. Treat these people as you would like to be treated if the situation was reversed. This is particularly critical if you are an “out-of-towner,” as your radar may not be as attuned to local sensitivities as it could be.
- For the families of victims and survivors, their loss, grief and concern is intensely focused and personal. It will also have its own timeline, which may mean you’d get a far better story or image if you hold off a little with those immediately affected. That won’t stop you from speaking to others who are not so closely affected, including officials, chaplains, etc.
- If you get a knock-back, leave a contact card and tell the person he or she can call you if they want to talk later. But don’t use leveraging techniques with victims, survivors, witnesses or their families to get them to agree to an interview or photograph. Don't try to manipulate people into cooperating on the basis that they will help others. Let them decide.
- Avoid, whenever possible, being the one to relay news of a death to an individual or family. The appropriate authorities should do that and relatives have a right to receive such news in private. If you are asked for additional details about the tragedy that they may not yet have, consider carefully your response and try to think you would feel if you were in their situation. You may want to suggest they check they with others. You may decide to share some, but not all, of what you know, but don’t repeat unconfirmed information.
- Remember that victims, survivors, their families and friends are struggling to regain control in their lives after a devastating experience. Allow them to have some say as to when, where and how they’re interviewed or photographed or filmed. Include them in any decisions you can – for instance, read back their quotes or replay raw tape; allow them to suggest which photos of a deceased or injured relative should be used.
- Allow vulnerable interviewees to tell you when they’d like to take a break, whether they want you to put your notebook down or turn off recording equipment so they can say something they don’t want used. Check whether it’s OK to ask a tough question.
- If someone breaks down, give them time to compose themselves before asking: “Are you ready to go on?” Resist filming or photographing individuals in a distressed or emotional state (even readers/viewers with no connection to tragedies are critical of this clichéd technique). Choose powerful, reinforcing images to illustrate the story and the victim’s worth to their family and/or community.
- After a disaster or multiple-fatality event, stories do not need added sensation. Rely on good, solid, factual journalism and a healthy dose of sensitivity. Be wary of recycling particular images of individuals, especially graphic ones. Also, beware of choosing “tragic images” as page or screen icons. Often this will be a family’s last image of a lost loved one and it may not be pleasant.
- Thoroughly check and re-check facts, names, times and places, because errors are painful to these individuals, families and their colleagues and cause unnecessary stress.
- Remember that people you speak to in traumatic circumstances are rarely media-savvy. Try to explain the media process and how your story/picture/footage is likely to be used. Explain that the material may be reshaped prior to publication, or afterwards, or not used at all. Be honest if you know something is likely to run more than once. [Many will take steps to ensure vulnerable family members such as children or the elderly are informed of, or shielded from, such reports.] Encourage them to ask questions while you’re there to answer them and to call you if they have a question at a later stage.