Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide
Suggestions for responsibly covering suicide while balancing concerns of privacy, stigma and avoiding copycat incidents.
These recommendations, published in 2011 by ReportingOnSuicide.org, were developed by leading experts in suicide prevention and in collaboration with several international suicide prevention and public
health organizations, schools of journalism, media organizations and key journalists as well as Internet safety experts. The recommendations are based on more than 50 international studies on suicide contagion.
Suicide is a public health issue. Media and online coverage of suicide should be informed by using best practices. Some suicide deaths may be newsworthy. However, the way media cover suicide can influence behavior negatively by contributing to contagion or positively by encouraging help-seeking.
IMPORTANT POINTS FOR COVERING SUICIDE
- More than 50 research studies worldwide have found that certain types of news coverage can increase the likelihood of suicide in vulnerable individuals. The magnitude of the increase is related to the amount, duration and prominence of coverage.
- Risk of additional suicides increases when the story explicitly describes the suicide method, uses dramatic/graphic headlines or images, and repeated/extensive coverage sensationalizes or glamorizes a death.
- Covering suicide carefully, even briefly, can change public misperceptions and correct myths, which can encourage those who are vulnerable or at risk to seek help.
Suicide Contagion or “Copycat Suicide” occurs when one or more suicides are reported in a way that contributes to another suicide.
- DON'T: Use big or sensationalistic headlines, or prominent placement (e.g., “Kurt Cobain Used Shotgun to Commit Suicide”).
DO: Inform the audience without sensationalizing the suicide and minimize prominence (e.g., “Kurt Cobain Dead at 27”).
- DON'T: Include photos/videos of the location or method of death, grieving family, friends, memorials or funerals.
DO: Use school/work or family photo; include hotline logo or local crisis phone numbers.
- DON'T: Describing recent suicides as an “epidemic, ” “skyrocketing,” or other strong terms.
DO: Carefully investigate the most recent CDC data and use non-sensational words like “rise” or “higher.”
- DON'T:Describe a suicide as inexplicable or “without warning.”
DO: Include the “Warning Signs” and “What to Do” sidebar (see below) in your article if possible. Most, but not all, people who die by suicide exhibit warning signs.
- DON'T:“John Doe left a suicide note saying…”.
DO: “A note from the deceased was found and is being reviewed by the medical examiner.”
- DON'T: Investigate and report on suicide similar to reporting on crimes.
DO: Report on suicide as a public health issue.
- DON'T: Quote/interview police or first responders about the causes of suicide.
DO:Seek advice from suicide prevention experts.
- DON'T: Refer to a suicide as “successful,” “unsuccessful” or a “failed attempt.”
DO: Describe as “died by suicide” or “completed” or “killed him/herself.”
AVOID MISINFORMATION AND OFFER HOPE
- Suicide is complex. There are almost always multiple causes, including psychiatric illnesses, that may not have been recognized or treated. However, these illnesses are treatable. Refer to research findings that mental disorders and/or substance abuse have been found in 90% of people who have died by suicide.
- Avoid reporting that death by suicide was preceded by a single event, such as a recent job loss, divorce or bad grades. Reporting like this leaves the public with an overly simplistic and misleading understanding of suicide.
- Consider quoting a suicide prevention expert on causes and treatments. Avoid putting expert opinions in a sensationalistic context.
- Use your story to inform readers about the causes of suicide, its warning signs, trends in rates and recent treatment advances.
- Add statement(s) about the many treatment options available, stories of those who overcame a suicidal crisis and resources for help.
- Include up-to-date local/national resources where readers/viewers can fi nd treatment, information and advice that promotes help-seeking.
SUGGESTIONS FOR ONLINE MEDIA, MESSAGE BOARDS, BLOGGERS & CITIZEN JOURNALISTS
- Bloggers, citizen journalists and public commentators can help reduce risk of contagion with posts or links to treatment services, warning signs and suicide hotlines.
- Include stories of hope and recovery, information on how to overcome suicidal thinking and increase coping skills.
- The potential for online reports, photos/videos and stories to go viral makes it vital that online coverage of suicide follow site or industry safety recommendations.
- Social networking sites often become memorials to the deceased and should be monitored for hurtful comments and for statements that others are considering suicide. Message board guidelines, policies and procedures could support removal of inappropriate and/or insensitive posts.
HELPFUL SIDEBAR FOR STORIES
WARNING SIGNS FOR SUICIDE
- Talking about wanting to die
- Looking for a way to kill oneself
- Talking about feeling hopeless or having no purpose
- Talking about feeling trapped or in unbearable pain
- Talking about being a burden to others
- Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs
- Acting anxious, agitated or recklessly
- Sleeping too little or too much
- Withdrawing or feeling isolated
- Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge
- Displaying extreme mood swings
WHAT TO DO
The more of these signs a person shows, the greater the risk. Warning signs are associated with suicide but may not be what causes a suicide. If someone you know exhibits warning signs of suicide:
- Do not leave the person alone
- Remove any firearms, alcohol, drugs or sharp objects that could be used in a suicide attempt
- Call the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255), a free, 24/7 service that can provide suicidal persons or those around them with support, information and local resources.
- Take the person to an emergency room or seek help from a medical or mental health professional
MORE INFORMATION AND RESOURCES
Developed in collaboration with: American Association of Suicidology, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Annenberg Public Policy Center, Associated Press Managing Editors, Canterbury Suicide Project - University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand, Columbia University Department of Psychiatry, ConnectSafely.org, Emotion Technology, International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Media and Suicide, Medical University of Vienna, National Alliance on Mental Illness, National Institute of Mental Health, National Press Photographers Association, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education, Suicide Prevention Resource Center, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UCLA School of Public Health, Community Health Sciences.